Ryzhkova Yuliya Anatol'evna, Candidate of economic sciences, associate professor, sub-department of economics and world economy, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Petrukhina Elena Olegovna,Applicant, sub-department of economics and world economy, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Background. Existence of the informal sector of economy is inevitable. According to many researchers, in a short term the informal activities undoubtedly have a positive influence on the system of national reproduction and activity of the economic entities, allowing to increase the profit of enterprises, wages of workers, and as for consumers - to receive goods and services at lower prices. But in a long term, when the strategic goal of the state is stable economic growth and socio-economic development of the whole society, ignoring of the informal economic activity restrains the financial possibilities of the state influence on the economy. The latter predetermines the unjust differentiation of incomes of the population, distorts the magnitude and dynamics of macroeconomic processes, and this, in turn, leads to an inadequate state of the economic and social policy and, ultimately, to the collapse of the system of ethnic reproduction. In this regard, both foreign and Russian scientists and politicians recognize the undoubted importance of this problem’s solution. The goal of the article is to define the stages of formation and structure of the informal sector of economy.
Materials and methods. Depending on the features of the tasks the authors used different methods of economic research: the abstract-logical - when setting the goals and objectives of the research; the comparative analysis - when comparing segments of the informal economy and other issues addressed in the work; the induction and deduction – when determining the stages of formation of the segments of the informal sector of economy; the heuristic method to detect patterns in the informal economy. The theoretical basis of the study consisted of works by Russian (S. Y. Barsukova, V. V. Radaev) and foreign (E. Mingione, J. Gershuny, Renooy P. H., Mattera Ph., Thomas J. J. Davis) economists on the influence of the informal sector on the national economy. Information and the empirical base of the research consist of materials from periodicals and the Internet.
Results. The authors carried out the comparative analysis of segments of the informal economy; it is revealed that the informal economy is not regulated by the law; the article determines the stages of formation of the informal sector of economy and presents the structure of thereof.
Conclusions. According to the analysis, the informal economy includes activities that contravene the law, i.e. proceeds against it, and activities that are not regulated by the law but do not violate anything, because the law does not interfere in this field. The first group includes the shadow and criminal economy. The difference between them is that the «informals» produce what the state allows, but in the process of production they violate the law. Criminal activity is against the law by nature. The second group includes domestic and reciprocal (exchange of gifts) economies. Thus, the informal economy permeates the entire system of national reproduction, all sectors of the economy.
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